Cataract – Causes for Occurrence, Treatment and Prevention.
The lens of the eye is a transparent structure that focuses the images on the photosensitive retina. Cataracts are darkened pollen in the lens. They occur when a particular protein in the lens forms abnormal clumps. They gradually become larger and affect vision. They distort or completely block the beam of light passing through the lens. “Cataract” means “big waterfall” or “huge storm” – this is how people describe their blurred vision – like looking through a waterfall.
In many cases, cataracts are age-dependent. They may first appear at the age of 40 or 50, but may not affect vision until the age of 60. In other cases, cataracts can be caused by eye trauma, prolonged diabetes, corticosteroid medications, radioactive treatment. In children, cataracts may be congenital or may be caused by infection during pregnancy, especially toxoplasmids, cytomegaloviruses, syphilis, rubella, or herpes. In children and adolescents, the cataract may be a symptom of a disease that affects the absorption of carbohydrates, amino acids, and calcium by the body.
Cataracts are the most common cause of blindness in the world – about 42%. In the United States, most are age-dependent and affect more than half of Americans 65 years old. Although the exact cause of the cataract with age is unknown, some experts believe it is due to chemical changes affecting the visual proteins called α-crystallins. A recent study found that α-crystals prevent abnormal accumulations of other types of proteins in cataracts. Studies are currently underway to determine the causes of cataracts. For now, it is known that such factors are prolonged exposure to strong sunlight as well as smoking.
Cataracts are usually asymptomatic until they are large enough to affect vision. Once symptoms appear, they may include:
– blurred and blurred vision
– double vision (diplopia)
– the colors appear dim
– increased sensitivity to bright light
Your doctor can determine if you have cataracts based on your age, medical history and symptoms. It can also be diagnosed by dilating your pupil and examining your eyes. You should also have a visual acuity test using a special dashboard to determine the extent to which your vision is affected.
Cataracts are “long-term” diseases. In most patients, vision deteriorates over time.
There is generally no way to prevent age-related cataracts in the eye. However, people with diabetes can improve their eyesight by lowering blood sugar. To avoid cataracts caused by an infection during pregnancy, women should consult their GP about the need for immunization against rubella before they become pregnant. Also, a pregnant woman should take special care of her health during pregnancy.
Although some people with cataracts can improve their eyesight by using glasses and contact lenses, the only treatment is surgery. However, before deciding to have surgery, really consider whether you need it since the surgery carries little risk.
The surgery involves removing the damaged lens and replacing it with an artificial lens or wearing special high-diopter glasses or contact lenses.
The current operating capabilities are as follows:
– Extracapsular Curtain Removal (Cataract) – Most cataracts are either removed manually or through sound waves directed at the lens, which destroy it in small pieces, which are then sucked off by vacuum. The lining of the lens that surrounds it remains intact.
– Intracapsular yarn removal – both the lens and the capsule surrounding it are removed. After the lens is removed, it is replaced by one of the following:
• intraocular lens – an artificial lens is inserted into the eye during surgery. Currently, this treatment is practiced in almost all patients. As soon as the artificial lens is placed, the doctor can determine its strength at the request of the patient.
• contact lenses
• Special glasses with a very large diopter
Surgery improves vision in 95% of cases. In patients who have received an intraocular replacement of the damaged lens, 90% of them have up to 40% better vision. In patients undergoing extracapsular surgery, some parts of the capsule may darken and cause a condition called after-cataract. The latter can be corrected by laser surgery.